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Rabu, 08 Juli 2009

ASUHAN KEPERAWATAN KLIEN DENGAN PERICARDITIS

PENGERTIAN: Perikarditis adalah peradangan perikard parietal, viseral atau keduanya. Perikarditis dibagi atas perikarditis akut, sub akut dan kronis. Yang sub akut dan kronis mempunyai etiologi dan pengobatan yang sama.
Perikarditis akut
disertai dengan nyeri dada dan abnormalitas EKG, serta ditemukan perikardial friction rub (trias klasik).
ETIOLOGI: Penyakit idiopatik (beningna), infeksi non spesifik (virus, bakteri, jamur , TBC, penyakit kolagen, artritis reumatoid, sistemic lupus eritromatosus, neoplasma seperti mesotelioma, tumor metastasis, trauma, radiasi, uremia, infark miokard akut, dressler sindrom, sindrom paska perikardiotomi , dan diseksi aorta). Walaupun banyak penyebab perikarditis akut, penyebab paling sering dengan urutan adalah : infeksi virus, infeksi bakteri, uremia, trauma, sindrom paska infark, sindrom paska perikardiotomi, neoplasma dan idiopatik.
GEJALA KLINIS: Sakit dada sub sternal/para sternal , kadang menjalar ke bahu, lebih ringan bila duduk. Pemeriksaan klinik ditemukan perikardial friction rub dan pembesaran jantung. Tanda-tanda penyumbatan ditemukan lewat tekanan vena meningkat, hematomegali dan udem kaki, bunyi jantung lemah, tetapi dapat normal bila efusi perikard berada dibelakang.
Foto rontgen tampak normal bila efusi perikar sedikit. Tampak bayangan jantung membesar bila efusi perikard banyak. EKG memperlihatkan segmen ST tanpa perubahan resiprokal, voltase QRS rendah. Pemeriksaan Echo: M-mode dua dimensi sangat baik untuk memastikan adanya efusi dan banyaknya cairan.
PENDEKATAN DIAGNOSTIK: Bila efusi diketahui menentukan etiologi dimulai dari anamnesis dan pemeriksaan fisik untuk mencari miksidema, trauma dada, radiasi, infeksi kronik, uremia, penyakit hati kronik dan TBC. Biopsi dibiakkan dan pemeriksaan histologis diusahakan untuk menetapkan etiologi .
GEJALA: Urutannya sbb: dispnea, edema perifer, pembesaran perut, gangguan abdominal, lelah ortopnoe,palpitasi, batuk, nausea dan paroxysmal nocturnal dispnea.
Foto rontgen dada biasanya menunjukkan besar jantung normal,kadang-kadang membesar pada 10%. Vena kava melebar di mediastinum kanan atas, atrium kiri membesar, penebalan perikard . EKG memperlihatkan low voltage, segmen ST dan inversi gelombang T yang menyeluruh. QRS irama sinus bisa juga timbul fibrilasi atrium. Ekokardiografi M Mode bisa menunjukkan penebalan dinding perikardium.

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